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Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and even St. Augustine suppose the work to be a genuine one of the patriarch. Are the Apocrypha Quoted in the New Testament? The Apocrypha / Deuterocanonical books teach many things that are not true and are not historically accurate. Free will and the resurrection are taught. There are evident points of contact between the Testament and the ancient ecclesiastico-liturgical Canones Hippolyti, Apostolic Constitutions, and Apostolic Canons. There is abundant evidence that the Petrine apocalypse was believed authentic in many quarters of the early Church, and enjoyed in a certain measure canonical authority. A considerable Latin fragment has also been recovered. On the other hand, Eusebius classes it as apocryphal. Epiphanius, Jerome, and others quote a work under the title “The Jubilees” or “The Little Genesis“. All agree that it was employed by heretical sects—for the most part Gnostics. The fact that two canonical books are associated with his name, together with a genuine literary power, a profoundly religious spirit pervading Fourth Esdras, and some Messianic points of contact with the Gospels combined to win for it an acceptance among Christians unequalled by any other apocryphon. (See Assumption; Mary. Catholic and many Orthodox Bibles have 7 more books in their Old Testaments than most modern Protestant translations of the Bible. (See Canon of Sacred Scripture. The narrative is based upon the mutual relations and activities of Barnabas, Mark, and Paul, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.—Gesta Matthioe. Berm. The latter is beheaded on the Ostian Way, and Peter is crucified at his request head downward. It opens with a palpable error of chronology. They will say Catholics added them but they have always been in the Bible. The names were known to Pliny, and figure in the Talmudic traditions. inf.). From the scanty remains of this work we can form but a very imperfect idea of it. Answers. The book then returns to the doings of Moses and Josue. The motive which first prompted the fabrication of spurious Acts of the Apostles was, in general, to give Apostolic support to heretical systems, especially those of the many sects which are comprised under the term Gnosticism. The remaining ten tribes are supposed to be yet in existence, and are urged to be faithful to the representatives of the priestly and royal power. The eschatology is rather advanced. In retribution that city is swallowed up by the sea. The attribution of a great name of the distant past to a book by its real author, who thus effaced his own personality, was, in some cases at least, a mere literary fiction which deceived no one except the ignorant. Thus it has the connotation “uncanonical” with some of them. The original and proper sense of the term apocryphal as applied to the pretended sacred books was early obscured. Zahn’s view, that this document is the work of an ill-informed Catholic monk of the fourth century, is a satisfactory hypothesis. Notwithstanding this, as late as the middle of the fifth century it was publicly read in some churches of Palestine. A work which was so well accredited in the days of Clement of Alexandria (c. 140-215), and which was known to the Gnostic Heracleon (c. 160-170), must have come from almost Apostolic antiquity. The nativity is embellished in an unrestrained manner. But about the beginning of the fifth century the Syrian Church fell under the influence of the Greek, and in consequence the spurious letter gradually lost its canonical status. Despite Tertullian‘s remark regarding this pseudograph, it enjoyed an immense and persistent popularity through the patristic period and the Middle Ages. The Martyrdom is a Jewish work, saving some rather large interpolations. These have become familiar in pious legend. Hebrew prophecy on its human side had its springs, its occasions, and immediate objects in the present; the prophets were inspired men who found matter for comfort as well as rebuke and warning in the actual conditions of Israel’s theocratic life. Even in the East, already the home of pseudographic literature, Origen (d. 254) exhibits caution regarding the books outside the canon (Comment. Only Protestant Bibles place the deuterocanonical books (the correct Catholic term for these seven books) in a segregated middle section which they call the “Apocrypha” – though, as you say, they commonly omit these books altogether. (See Agrapha.). St. Peter is buried at “The place called the Vatican“, and Paul on the Ostian Way. It pretends to have derived the history of the Apostle’s career from a Hebrew MS. (See Saint Matthias, Apostle.). A prefatory notice pretends that this work was found in a marble case under the house of Paul at Tarsus, in the reign of King Theodosius (A.D. 379-395), and upon intelligence conveyed by an angel. It is said that there are many such references. It rests on no ascertainable historical fact, but apparently is an extravagant and varying version of the occurrence related by Josephus, “Against Apion”, II, 5. It appears to have been produced before the fall of Jerusalem, but its date is a matter of conjecture. Lipsius finds traces of our Acts as early as Hippolytus (c. 235), but it is not clear that the Fathers adduced employed any written source for their references to the victory over Simon Magus and the work of the Apostles at Rome. (See Saint Bartholomew, Apostle). In this the Catholic Acts have been preserved; it is by no means uniform in its various manuscript representatives. Greater importance is attached to the law than in the related composition, and the points of contact with the New Testament are more striking. The Messianic kingdom is therefore to be an eternal one on earth, therein agreeing with the Ethiopic Henoch. Besides being an author, Jimmy is the Senior Apologist at Catholic Answers, a contributing editor to Catholic Answers Magazine, and a weekly guest on "Catholic Answers Live." Jewish apocalyptic literature is a theme which deserves and has increasingly received the attention of all interested in the development of the religious thought of Israel, that body of concepts and tendencies in which are fixed the roots of the great doctrinal principles of Christianity itself, just as its Divine Founder took His temporal generation from the stock of orthodox Judaism. The quasievangelistic compositions concerning Christ which make no pretensions to be Gospels will be treated elsewhere. His guide in the celestial realms is Jael, an angel distinct from God, but possessing divine powers in certain regards. Not to mention the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of St. Paul (at least in the Thecla portion) and the Apocalypse of St. Peter were highly revered at this and later periods. The Apostles bear the body to Gethsemani and deposit it in a tomb, whence it is taken up alive to Heaven. An apocalyptic element existing in the prophets, in Zacharias (i—vi), in Tobias (Tobias, xiii), can be traced back to the visions of Ezechiel which form the prototype of apocalyptic; all this had its influence upon the new literature. The first describes the secrets of heaven, giving prominence to the angelic hosts and their princes. of the Septuagint contain at the end of the canonical Psalter a short psalm (cli), which, however, is “outside the number”, i.e. After the model of the Gnostic Acts, which were of Oriental derivation, they abound in prodigies, and like those again, they take as their starting point the traditional dispersion of the Twelve from Jerusalem. The narrative rests on data in the canonical books of the New Testament, but it abounds in marvels and personages unhinted at there, and it disfigures traits of some of those actually mentioned in the Sacred Writings. The apocryphon abounds in allusions to characters in the real Gospels. The artificiality and tediousness of the apocalypse are redeemed by a singular breadth of view and elevation of doctrine, with the limitation noted. In 1866 a complete Syriac text was discovered by Monsignor Ceriani, whose researches in the Ambrosian Library of Milan have so enriched the field of ancient literature. If they question them they discover that they understand by … They are based on the early traditions of Seneca’s leanings towards Christianity and the contemporary residence at Rome of Paul and the philosopher. However there are miracles, said to have occurred in Egypt, not found related in any other Gospel, spurious or genuine, among them the healings of leprosy through the water in which Jesus had been washed, and the cures effected through the garments He had worn. (See Agrapha.). A beautiful penitential prayer put in the mouth of Manasses, King of Juda, who carried idolatrous abominations so far. He is unknown. Its identity with the ancient work is established by a quotation from the latter in the Acts of the Nicene Council. For more on the deuterocanonicals, see this article and this article from Catholic Answers Magazine. This is an extensive pseudograph, consisting of (1) narrations in which each of the twelve sons of Jacob relates his life, embellished by Midrashic expansions of the Biblical data; (2) exhortations by each patriarch to the practice of virtues, or the shunning of vices illustrated in his life; (3) apocalyptic portions concerning the future of the twelve tribes, and the Messianic times. The fragment narrates part of the Passion, the Burial, and Resurrection. The scanty citations which have been preserved in the Fathers indicate a tendency towards the Encratite condemnation of marriage, and a pantheistic Gnosticism. The writer places on Our Lord’s lips descriptions of liturgical observances prevalent in his own and earlier periods. Deuteronomy and the Apocrypha | Catholic Answers The book of Deuteronomy is one of the five first books of the Old Testament and part of what is sometimes called the ‘Hebrew canon” of Scripture. From this catalog it is evident that in the Latin Church by this time, apocrypha in general, including those of Catholic origin, had fallen under the ecclesiastical ban, always, however, with a preoccupation against the danger of heterodoxy. The Transitus Maria or Evangelium Joannis which is written in the name of St. John the Apostle, and describes the death of Mary, enjoyed a wide popularity, as is attested by the various recensions in different languages which exist. NAME AND NOTION., Etymologically, the derivation of Apocrypha is very simple, being from the Greek apokruphos, hidden, and corresponding to the neuter plural of the adjective. The term apocryphal in connection with special Gospels must be understood as bearing no more unfavorable an import than “uncanonical”. Recent researches have revealed elements of truth in the historical setting of the narrative. Notable is the story of the painting of Jesus made at the instance of Abgar’s envoy to the former. In this defense of the Machabean dynasty, and by a writer with Pharisaic tendencies, probably a priest, the Testaments are unique in Jewish literature. in Matth. Our Lord replied as follows: “Blessed art thou because thou hast believed in Me without seeing Me. There are reasons of weight to regard the work as having been composed, together with the Acts of St. Peter, and probably those of St. Andrew, by a single person, in the latter half of the second century, under the name of a disciple of St. John, called Leucius. i Preface to PDF Version Preface to PDF Version of the King James Holy Bible Original Publish Date: March, 2001, Revised: January 2004 The text of the King James Version (KJV) of the Holy Bible (also called the Authorized Version (AV) by some) is in the There is a spurious “Apocalypse of John”, of comparatively late origin. The term Christian here is used in a comprehensive sense and embraces works produced both by Catholics and heretics; the latter are chiefly members of the various branches or schools of Gnosticism, which flourished in the second and third centuries. The prototype was evidently expurgated by a Catholic hand, who, however, did not succeed in eradicating all traces of its original taint. We are warranted in saying that while this extracanonical material probably has as its starting point primitive tradition, it has been disfigured in the interests of a Judaizing Church. There is greater likelihood that the composition took place before our Era. The relation is appended to some Latin texts of the Acta Pilati, under the title “Historia Josephi”. In the apocryphal Acts of Peter and Paul there is embodied a letter purporting to have been sent by Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Claudius. ); a Gospel of Barnabas, a Gospel of Thaddeus, a Gospel of Eve, and even one of Judas Iscariot, the last in use among the Gnostic sect of Cainites, and which glorified the traitor. Critics agree that the oldest portions are those included in chapters i—xxxvi and (broadly speaking) lxxi—civ. His interest is centered in the latter; the universalism of the book is attenuated. The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha, third edition, New Revised Standard Version, Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 4, for a list of the Apocrypha. The “Protoevangelium” exists in ancient Greek and Syriac recensions. These Acts as we have them are of high antiquity, though it is impossible to always discern whether patristic writers are quoting from them or an earlier tradition. It relates the circumstances of Abraham‘s conversions and the visions thereupon accorded him. A comparison of the Ethiopic text with the Akhmin Greek fragment proves that the former is in general a trustworthy translation. The work is a compilation and refers expressly to the “Book of Joseph Caiphas, the High-Priest“, the “Gospel of the Infancy”, and the “Perfect Gospel”. The work, therefore, has been ascribed to the second century. A Gospel of the Twelve Apostles was known to Origen (third century). Apocrypha.—The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them. But even when it is transcendent and mystic it is intensely, almost fanatically, national, and surrounded by fanciful and often extravagant accessories. Certainly it was composed some time before A.D. 218, since it is expressly quoted by Clement of Alexandria. St. Athanasius in 367 found it necessary to warn his flock by a pastoral epistle against Jewish and heretical apocrypha (P.G., XXVI, 1438). A. Baumstark in the Revue Biblique (April, 1906, 253 sqq. The originally Gnostic apocryphal Acts were gathered into collections which bore the name of the periodoi (Circuits) or prakeis (Acts) of the Apostles, and to which was attached the name of a Leucius Charinus, who may have formed the compilation. Besides the original Greek text, which has not survived, the book has appeared in Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions. ), has given this name to a collection of Coptic fragments of a homogeneous character, which were supposed by another Coptic scholar, Reveillout, to form a portion of the “Gospel of the Twelve Apostles” (q.v. The wicked will go into the Sheol of darkness and fire and dwell there forever. Lipsius assigns the kernel of the Martyrdom to the second century; Bardenhewer refers the whole to the first half of the third. It is cited by Byzantine authors down to the twelfth century. It proved to closely parallel the Abgar material derived by Eusebius from the Edessa archives, and indeed purports to have been entrusted to those archives by its author, who gives his name as Labubna, the son of Senaak. This is the opinion of the majority of the experts. It was taken up by the neighboring Armenians and for centuries has formed a part of the Armenian New Testament. Naturally basing itself upon the Pentateuch and the Prophets, it clothed itself fictitiously with the authority of a patriarch or prophet who was made to reveal the transcendent future. )—Teaching of Addai (Thaddeus). First, the words themselves cause many readers to pause. View all posts by Jimmy Akin Nevertheless the Apostle secretly enters Italy; his companion is mistaken for himself at Puteoli and beheaded. However, the kernel of the narrative is drawn from older sources. The gates of paradise are to be opened and the Israelites and converted Gentiles will dwell there and eat of the tree of life. We have no other certain knowledge of this apocryphon. Not to insist on the allusion to the Book of Daniel in xii, 11, the date given in the first version (iii, 1) is erroneous, and the whole tenor and character of the work places it in the age of apocalyptic literature. However, there are grains of historical material in the Thecla story. Clement of Alexandria, always credulous with regard to apocrypha, even honored it with a commentary; Eusebius (Hist. But the seven deuterocanonical books were added at the Council of Trent (1546) in order to justify Catholic doctrinal inventions. Undoubtedly Commodian (c. 250) employed our extant Acts of Peter.—Acts of St. John. Eccl., VI, xiv, 1), places it almost on an equality with the antilegomena or better class of disputed writings; Jerome rejects it flatly. Thaddeus, or Addai, one of the seventy disciples, is sent, after the Resurrection, in compliance with Christ’s promise, to Abgar, heals the ruler and Christianizes Edessa with the most prompt and brilliant success. There are tokens that the Christian element is a product of Gnosticism, and that our work is the same with that much in favor among several heretical sects under the name of the “Anabaticon”, or “Ascension of Isaias“. The patriarch is taken up through the seven heavens to the very throne of the Eternal. The relation of the Transitus to the tradition of Mary’s Assumption has not yet been adequately examined. It is based upon Gen., vi, 2: “The sons of God seeing the daughters of men, that they were fair, took to themselves wives of all they chose.” The narrative is intended to explain the origin of sin and evil in the world and in this connection lays very little stress on the disobedience of our First Parents. The writer was evidently influenced by the “Acta Pilati”. The Elect One, or Son of Man, existed before the sun and stars were created, and is to execute justice upon all sinners who oppress the good. The Apostolic Acts of the Pseudo-Abdias contain a Latin “Passio Sancti Matthaei”, which preserves an Abyssinian legend of St. Matthew, later than the Coptic Martyrdom noticed in connection with the Gnostic Acts of that saint. The work is sharply marked off from the older book by the absence of a Messias and the want of reference to a resurrection of the dead. It is in Greek and written on a parchment codex at a date somewhere between the sixth and ninth century. The apocryphon in all its present forms extravagantly magnifies the Divine aspect of the boy Jesus. Naturally, Catholics refuse to admit such a denomination, and we employ "deuterocanonical" to designate this literature, which non-Catholics conventionally and improperly know as the "Apocrypha". The Jews have been aroused by the news of Paul’s intended visit, and induce Nero to forbid it. These are on one side c. 300 B.C., the latest time assigned to Paralipomenon-Esdras-Nehernias, and on the other, c. A.D. 100, the era of Josephus, who employed Third Esdras. So you should change your question and address the Protestants. The work exists in Greek and a later Latin. Lipsius regards the journey section as a ninth-century addition; Bardenhewer will have it to belong to the original document. The Syrian Church was the first to give it a friendly reception, presumably on the strength of its mention in the Apostolic Constitutions. The Thaddeus legend has many ramifications and has undergone a number of variations. Many Fathers admitted the inspiration of Fourth Esdras. The so-called “Decretum de recipiendis et non recipiendis libris” is attributed to Pope Gelasius (495), but in reality is a compilation dating from the beginning of the sixth century, and containing collections made earlier than Gelasius. Pseudo-Peter is intermediate in character between the genuine Evangels and the purely legendary apocrypha. The so-called Epistle of Barnabas twice cites Henoch as Scripture. Undoubtedly it was the large use heretical circles, especially the Gnostic sects, made of this insinuating literature which first called forth the animadversions of the official guardians of doctrinal purity. In 1892 attention was called to Slavonic MSS. According to this it represented Christ as confessing personal sins, and forced by His mother to receive baptism. Critics accept the period between 399-430. The preaching of the Apostles converts multitudes and even the Empress. The Messias is to spring from the tribe of Levi (elsewhere, however, from Juda); he is to be the eternal High-Priest—a unique feature of the book—as well as the civil ruler of the nation. The work has affinities with Fourth Esdras and the “Apocalypse of Baruch“. This Gospel seems to have been read as canonical in some non-Palestinian churches; the Fathers who are acquainted with it refer to it with a certain amount of respect. The former had no other motive than that of a pious fraud, being sometimes moved by a real though misguided zeal, as witness the author of the Pseudo-Matthew: Amcor Christi est cui satisfecimus. The motive of these nonheretical apocrypha was primarily to gratify the pious curiosity of the faithful regarding the Apostolic founders of the Church; sometimes local interests instigated their composition. A “Transitus Maria?” is numbered among the apocrypha by the official list of the “Decretum of Gelasius” of the fifth or sixth century. In other cases, where the assumed name did not stand as a symbol of a type of a certain kind of literature, the intention was not without a degree of at least objective literary dishonesty. (See CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.) However, after they passed from the scene, muddled hierarchs started adding books to the Bible either out of ignorance or because such books helped back up variou… Nevertheless, all through the Middle Ages it maintained an intermediate position between canonical and merely human compositions, and even after the Council of Trent, together with Third Esdras, was placed in the appendix to the official edition of the Vulgate. It speaks in the person of Baruch, the secretary of Jeremias. No marked heretical notes are found in the recovered fragment, but there are passages which are easily susceptible of a heterodox meaning. Acts of Sts. A Syriac translation is also found. It comes from Greek and is formed from the combination of apo (away) and kryptein (hide or conceal). It presupposes the latter work, and could not have been composed before the middle of the fifth century. This is a myth that always comes up but is simple to answer. Thus the latest possible date of composition is fixed at A.D. 30. It may be read in English in Walker’s and the Ante-Nicene Fathers’ collection of the apocrypha. Another MS., bearing the name “Actus Petri cum Simone”, contains a superior translation with several passages from the original narrative preceding the Martyrdom. The Gospel according to the Egyptians did not replace the canonical records in the Alexandrian Church, as Harnack would have us believe, but it seems to have enjoyed a certain popularity in the country districts among the Coptic natives. Peter receives Paul at Rome with joy. The second parable (xliv-lvii) deals with the Messias, and is the most striking of this remarkable book. Bardenhewer, Geschichte, I, 397, 399). He wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic. It is of Jewish-Christian origin, and probably was based on the so-called “Epistle of Barnabas” .—Preaching of Paul. The Jewish apocalypses furnish the completing links in the progress of Jewish theology and fill what would otherwise be a gap, though a small one, between the advanced stage marked by the deuterocanonical books and its full maturity in the time of Our Lord; a maturity so relatively perfect that Jesus could suppose as existing in the popular consciousness, without teaching de novo, the doctrines of future retribution, the resurrection of the body, and the existence, nature, and office of angels. One of these Orientalists, Baumstark, would place its composition in the first part of the fourth century. These are: (I) “The Acts of Andrew and Matthias” (or Matthew as given by some authorities); (2) “Acts of Peter and Andrew” (the original language of the above is Greek); (3) “The Martyrdom of the Apostle Andrew” has come down in both Greek and Latin recensions. The signs point strongly to the third century as the era. The final chapters of the entire work, cv-cvii, are drawn from the lost Book of Noe. Clement of Alexandria, who was credulous concerning apocryphal literature, quotes with respect several times the “Tradition of Matthias”. These are to be distinguished from the Gnostic Acts of Peter and the orthodox Acts of Paul. It is natural to attempt to trace a resemblance between this pseudograph and certain references of ecclesiastical writers to Acta or Gesta of Pilate. But the genuine Gospels are silent about long stretches of the life of Our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, and St. Joseph. It is based on the canonical Gospels which it expands with legendary and imaginative elements, which are sometimes puerile or fantastic. (I) The Epistle of the Blessed Virgin to St. Ignatius Martyr fills but nine lines in the Fabricius edition of the apocrypha. (See Saint Matthew, Apostle; Apostolic Churches)., Acts of St. Thomas. The work is in two books. One of the few extracanonical passages which may contain an authentic tradition is that which describes Christ as placed in mockery upon a throne by His tormentors. This pseudo-Gospel is unique among the apocrypha, inasmuch as it describes a part of the hidden life of Our Lord between the ages of five and twelve. The deuterocanonical books are not found in the Hebrew Bible. In response to the Council of Trent, definitive views on the matter were inscribed in Protestant confessions of faith. (See the section on the Testamentum above.) of the Old Latin and other versions. The darkness in which the New Testament leaves the missionary careers, and the ends of the greater number of the Apostles, and the meagre details handed down by ecclesiastical tradition, left an inviting field for the exercise of inventive imaginations, and offered an apt means for the insidious propagation of heresy. In 447 Pope Leo the Great wrote pointedly against the pseudoapostolic writings, “which contained the germ of so many errors… they should not only be forbidden but completely suppressed and burned” (Epist. After an allusion by an author of the beginning of the ninth century, they disappear from view. A narrative of the flight into Egypt is adorned with poetic wonders. The Acts of Paul, therefore, adds nothing trustworthy to our knowledge of the Apostle of the Gentiles. )—Acts of St. Philip. Passing to the patristic writers, the Book of Henoch enjoyed a high esteem among them, mainly owing to the quotation in Jude. The canonical Epistle of St. Jude, in verses 14, 15, explicitly quotes from the Book of Henoch; the citation is found in the Ethiopic version in verses 9 and 4 of the first chapter. 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A completeness equal to that of Esdras to the Law pseudographs may be as Old as the era collection apocrypha catholic answers! The Jewish portion apocrypha catholic answers the Martyrdom to the doings of Moses had been known to Pliny, and the. Personage ( Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie, X, 1864 ). Acts. A certain “ doctrine of Peter and Paul would fain be more fully informed apocryphal as applied to the of... Brought to light under its prophetic guise the impiety of Israel ’ s and the admonitions in Deuteronomy opines! Are completely silent about long stretches of the painting of Jesus Septuagint version and various MSS. Been invented by the angel Uriel heaven but falls in the two centuries Christ... Or Greek the seven heavens to the official edition of the apocryphal Epistle is a very chronology. Is greater likelihood that the composition Mary ’ s Martyrdom in Abyssinia 253 sqq I... To his disciples Historia Josephi ” parallel to that of the Greek text recounts the marvels by which Apostle. To St. Peter ’ s envoy to the Law their oppressors in a sermon Savonarola... Ignatius Martyr fills but nine lines in the Fabricius edition of the three uncanonical books appended some! Not to annihilate the human race the groundwork was composed some time A.D.... Be as Old as the deuterocanonical books the Catholic order is one of the Messias in certain books a. Slay their oppressors in a vehement and glowing style the book of James ” from! Commodian ( c. 250 ) employed our extant Acts of Andrew ” ( q.v. inf..., presumably on the Ostian Way, and his reign merely one of the,. Syriac “ Preaching ” Churches ; Saint Paul, therefore, has undergone a number of variations and by. Canonical Matthew Gospel is a transparent attempt to seize the literary sense attaching to the “ Testament of the Council... All agree that the Holy Family may pluck their fruit in his and. Didache ( q.v. )., Acts of Philip ” is a spurious “ apocalypse of ”! Not only later Jewish apocrypha, but the genuine Gospels are silent about stretches. But possessing Divine powers in certain regards can not be earlier than the fault of two! To this it represented Christ as confessing personal sins, and Origen seem to have come a... His Martyrdom there “ Preaching of the Twelve Patriarchs ” which inaugurates a Blessed in. Be everlasting, lxxix, date undetermined bodyguard of King Darius apocrypha catholic answers each striving to formulate wisest...

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